This discipline of dentistry is focused on the treatment of gum disease (gingivitis) and the supporting tissues of the teeth (periodontitis). Sometimes, the structures that surround and support the teeth are affected significantly. This triggers a continuous degenerative process that progresses slowly, reaching an advanced stage in which the tooth moves too much and ends up useless.
The main cause is an infection caused by different types of bacteria. Most of these bacteria are found in normal circumstances in the mouth of any individual, but the lack of proper sanitation causes disease. Oral hygiene is essential to treat such problems. Only in this way is achieved an effective therapy. The basic treatment involves thorough cleaning of the gums using a device of ultrasonic scalers (scanning instruments) and polishers. The purpose of this is to eliminate the bacterial plaque that causes this problem. The patient's oral hygiene is essential to maintain the oral health achieved.